A word or phrase which is added or linked to a noun to modify it. It may come before or after the noun: the red dress / the dress was red. There are different sorts of adjective.
number – six, three, hundreds
quantity – more, all, some
quality – relates to colour, size, smell
possessive – my, his, their
interrogative – which, whose, what
demonstrative – this, that, these, those
A word or phrase which describes or modifies a verb. There are different sorts of adverb.
manner – happily, lazily, angrily, slowly
time – later, soon, now
place – here, near, far
degree – modifies another adverb: very, rather
Distinct part of a sentence including a verb. There are different types.
main - the main clause makes sense on its own. E.g. I’ll phone you when I have some news.
subordinate – this gives more information about the main clause. E.g. I’ll phone you when I have some news.
Clauses can be abbreviated into phrases which do not have a verb. E.g. When happy, the children sang.
A word used to link sentences or clauses. There are different types.
cause – because, therefore
opposition – however, but
addition – furthermore, also
time – later, next
Words which are shortened. E.g. Do not – don’t, should have – should’ve.
Placing a clause within a sentence rather than adding a conjunction.
A sentence which requests action. The verb is at the beginning of the sentence. E.g. Get me a drink.
|Metaphor||Where the writer writes about something as if it were really something else. E.g. She has the heart of a lion. His belt was a snake curling round his waist.|
A word that names a thing or a feeling. They can be singular and plural. There are four main types of noun.
proper – a specifically named place or person – John, London
common – non-specific – man, dog, shop
collective – a group – flock, crowd, army
abstract – a concept or idea – love, justice, sympathy
|Person||A text may be written in the first person – I said, I am the second person – you said, you are the third person – she said, they are|
Two or more words which act as one unit.
noun – the dog, a black catverb – he ran slowly, she has been talking for ages
adverbial – expands the verb telling the reader how, when or where – I will be home as soon as possible, she lives along the lane.
adjectival – a phrase used as an adjective – the girl with the long hair lives near us.
|Preposition||A word describing the relationship between two nouns, two pronouns or a noun and a pronoun.The cat sat on the mat.They dived into the water.Underneath the bed a spider crawled.|
A word used instead of a noun. This helps improve writing by reducing repetition. E.g. Peter is a good reader. Peter reads each day. becomes Peter is a good reader. He reads each day. There are different types of pronoun.
demonstrative – that, these, this, those
indefinite – any, some, each, many
interrogative – who, whose, which, what
personal – I, me, we us
reflexive – myself, himself, itself
reciprocal – each other, one another
Comparing the subject to something else. E.g. She sings like a bird. John is as strong as an ox.
A word or group of words which name an action or a state of being. Verbs may be in different tenses.
past – I ate, I have eaten
present – I am eating, I eat
future – I will be eating
Verbs can be active or passive. Active – The dog bit Ben. Passive – Ben was bitten by the dog.
This refers to how the writer develops the relationship between the subject of the writing and the actions.
active voice – the writer uses active verbs to make it clear who carries out particular actions, E.g. I decided that…
passive – the writer does not specify who carries out particular actions. E.g. It was decided that…
The Language of Grammar